APS News

March 1996 (Volume 5, Number 3)

Physicists to be Honored at 1996 March Meeting

Ten APS prizes and awards will be presented during a special ceremonial session at the 1996 APS March Meeting in St. Louis, Missouri, to be held later this month. Citations and biographical information for each recipient follow.


Established in 1952 by an endowment from AT&T Bell Laboratories, the Oliver E. Buckley Prize is intended to recognize and encourage outstanding theoretical or experimental contributions to condensed matter physics.

Charles Pence Slichter
University of Illinois

Citation: "For his original and creative applications of the magnetic resonance techniques to elucidate the microscopic properties of condensed matter systems including, especially, superconductors."

Slichter is a pioneer in the development of magnetic resonance and its applications to problems in condensed matter physics, chemistry, and surface science and technology. He obtained his Ph.D. in 1949 from Harvard University, beginning research in magnetic resonance as a student with E. Purcell just two years after the discovery of NMR. He has taught at the University of Illinois since 1949, and is currently a professor both of Physics and Chemistry. He is a past recipient of the APS Irving Langmuir Prize.

With Hebel, Slichter provided the first experimental proof of the pairing correlation in superconductors. He has made important discoveries about both the normal and superconducting states of high temperature superconductors. Among his other contributions are the first measurements of the Pauli spin susceptibility, introduction of phase sensitive detection to pulsed NMR and its use to detect weak signals, studies of charge density waves and of the Kondo effect, first demonstration of dynamic nuclear polarization, co-discovery of J-coupling in molecules, and studies of NMR of metal surfaces.

Established in 1980 and now sponsored by Pergamon Press, Ltd., the Isakson Prize is awarded biennially in recognition and encouragement of outstanding contributions to the field of optical effects in solids.

David E. Aspnes
North Carolina State University

Citation: "For his creative applications of experimental and theoretical methods to the study of optical properties of thin films, surfaces, and interfaces; in particular, for electric- field modulation, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and dynamic control of epitaxial growth."

Aspnes received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Illinois in 1965. After a year there as a postdoctoral research associate, and another at Brown University, he joined the technical staff of Bell Laboratories. In 1983 he joined Bellcore to organize and head the Interface Physics Department. He became a faculty member at North Carolina State University in 1992.

Principal research interests have been in the areas of optical spectroscopy and semiconductor and surface physics. Contributions include the discovery, elucidation, and development of low-field electroreflectance for high- resolution spectroscopy of semi-conductors and the determination of their band structures, the development and application of spectroscopic ellipsometry to surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and bulk materials, and the -development and application of reflectance-difference spectroscopy to real-time analysis of epitaxial growth.

The George E. Pake Prize was established in 1983 by the Xerox Corporation to recognize outstanding physicists who combine original research accomplishments with leadership in the management of research or development in industry.

Charles Vernon Shank
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Citation: "For his pioneering research accomplishments in the area of laser development and ultrafast phenomena for his outstanding research management leadership as director of the Electronics Research Laboratory at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the development of quantum electronics, and as director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for fostering industrial interactions."

Shank has been Director of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, California, since 1989. In addition, Shank has a unique triple appointment as a professor at the University of California, Berkeley in the departments of physics, chemistry and electrical engineering and computer sciences. He graduated summa cum laude from UC Berkeley in 1965 and went on to receive his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in 1969.

Shank then joined the staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories. During his 20-year career there, he held numerous leadership positions including director of the Electronics Research Laboratory. He made pioneering contributions to the study of ultrafast (nanosecond) events using short laser pulses. He contributed to fiber optic communications with the invention of the distributed feedback laser, a component in high data rate transmission systems.

The Earle K. Plyler Prize was established in 1976 by the George E. Crouch Foundation to recognize and encourage notable contributions to molecular spectroscopy.

Charles S. Parmenter
University of Indiana

Citation: "For his many important contributions to molecular spectroscopy, energy transfer, and reaction dynamics following his inventions and developments of fluorescence labelling and chemical timing spectroscopies."

Parmenter completed his B.A. in chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania in 1955. Following two years in the US Air Force with DuPont, he completed his chemistry Ph.D. in 1962 at the University of Rochester. After postdoctoral research with G.B. Kistiakowsky at Harvard, he began his academic career at Indiana University in 1964. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Parmenter's development of single vibronic level fluorescence spectroscopy in the 1960's provided a general method for reliable vibrational assignment of polyatomic electronic absorption spectra. The technique also led to discovery of the high sensitivity of nonradiative excited electronic state decay rates to vibrational excitation and provided a general approach to single-collision state-to-state vibrational energy transfer in large molecules. His chemical timing fluorescence spectroscopy provided one of the first time-resolved spectroscopic views of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR).

The High Polymer Physics Prize was established the Ford Motor Company to recognize outstanding accomplishment and excellence in contributions to high polymer physics research.

Alan N. Gent
University of Akron

Citation: "For fundamental contributions to the physics of adhesion and fracture of elastomers."

Gent is currently professor emeritus of polymer physics and polymer engineering at the University of Akron, where he has been a faculty member since 1961, as well as scientific advisor to the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. From 1949 to 1961 he was a research physicist at the British (now Malaysian) Rubber Producers' Research Association. He received a Ph.D. in 1955 from the University of London. His main research interests are in the mechanics of deformation and fracture of rubber and plastics. He is a past chair of the APS Division of High Polymer Physics, and past President of the Society of Rheology.

Established in 1981, the prize is intended to recognize and encourage outstanding achievement in biological physics research.

Sponsors include Abbott Laboratories, Bio-Rad Microscience Division, Candela Laser Corporation, Coherent Laser Products, Eastman Kodak, Furumoto Research Foundation, Newport Corporation, and Siemens AG.

Seiji Ogawa
AT&T Bell Laboratories

Citation: "For his many seminal contributions to the understanding of biological systems ranging from proteins to intact organs by nuclear magnetic resonance culminating in the development and application of functional magnetic resonance imaging by blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast."

Ogawa received his B.S. degree from the University in Tokyo in Applied Physics in 1957 and his Ph.D. degree from Stanford University in Chemistry in 1967. He was a research associate at the Mellon Institute in the early 1960s, studying radiation chemistry. Since 1968, Ogawa has worked at AT&T Bell Laboratories, first in the Bell Laboratories Biophysics Department and then in the Biological Computation Research Department where he is currently employed. He is the 1995 Gold Medal Award recipient from the Society of Magnetic Resonance for scientific achievement.

In the early 1970's, Ogawa worked on studies of the structure-function relation in proteins by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, especially on cooperative oxygen binding in hemoglobin. From the mid 70's to mid 80's he pioneered in vivo studies of cellular metabolism and energetics and also enzyme kinetics. Currently, Ogawa is conducting research on functional MRI of the brain: BOLD contrast to brain function, functional mapping, spatio-temporal image patterns in functioning or non-functioning of the brain.


Established in 1994, the Bouchet Award (formerly the Visiting Minority Lectureship Award) is sponsored by the Research Corporation. It is intended to promote the participation of under-represented minorities in physics by publicizing the lecturer's work and career development to the physics community, especially to minority physics students.

Anthony M. Johnson
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Citation: "For his pioneering contributions to nonlinear optics, lasers, and optoelectronics, his leadership in the national scientific community, and his many efforts to attract minorities to careers in science and engineering."

Johnson received his Ph.D. in physics from the City College of the City University of New York in 1981 and joined the technical staff of AT&T Bell Lab-oratories' Quantum Physics and Electronics Research Department that same year. He is presently a chair of the Federated Physics Departments at the New Jersey Institute of Technology and Rutgers. His research interests include nonlinear optics, ultrashort pulse propagation in optical fibers, and the optical and optoelectronic properties of II-VI semiconductor multiple quantum wells. He has served on the Executive Committee of the Laser Science Topical Group and a number of APS committees, including the APS Committee on Minorities, which he chaired.

Established in 1985 by the General -Electric Foundation to recognize outstanding achievement by a woman physicist in the early years of her career, the Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award includes a travel allowance for the recipient to present her achievements to others through public lectures at four institutions of her choice within the U.S.

Marjorie Ann Olmstead
University of Washington

Citation: For her innovative application of electron spectroscopies to surfaces and interfaces that has elucidated the importance of interfacial reactions on the structure, properties and morph-ology of both the interface and growing film in systems involving dissimilar materials, especially when heteroepitaxy is involved."

Olmstead is an associate professor of physics at the University of Washington, Seattle. She received her Ph.D. in 1985 from the University of California, Berkeley. After a year and a half at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, she returned to Berkeley as an assistant professor of physics in 1986. She joined the faculty at the University of Washington in 1991.

Olmstead's primary research effort probes the chemical, structural, and kinetic constraints controlling the heteroepitaxy of strongly disparate materials. She also studies the role of local geometry and electronic structure on photoelectron energies and satellite excitations in insulators.

Medals & Lectureships

The David Adler Lectureship Award was established in 1988 by contributions from friends of David Adler. Its purpose is to recognize an outstanding contributor to the field of materials physics, who is noted for his or her research, review articles, and lecturing.

M. Brian Maple
University of California, San Diego

Citation: "For sustained impact in -diverse areas including superconductivity, magnetism, high-pressure physics, and surface science. Not only has he developed many novel materials, he is also highly respected as a teacher."

Maple is the Bernd T. Matthias Professor of Physics at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). He received his Ph.D. in physics in 1969 from UCSD. Maple chaired the APS Division of Condensed Matter Physics in 1987, and presided over the celebrated high Tc superconductivity ("Woodstock") session at the 1987 APS March meeting. He has chaired numerous international conferences and has advised national laboratories and IUPAP Commissions.

The John H. Dillon Medal was established in 1983 by the Division of High Polymer Physics to recognize outstanding research accomplishments by a young polymer physicist.

Julia Ann Kornfield
California Institute of Technology

Citation: "For incisive experiments to relate microstructural dynamics to macroscopic behavior of polymer blends, block copolymers and liquid crystals."

Kornfield is an associate professor of chemical engineering at CalTech. She received her Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1988. Following a NATO post-doctoral fellowship at the Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research, she joined the faculty of Caltech in 1990. Professional activity has included serving on the APS Committee on Education, as well as involvement with the Division of High Polymer Physics.

Kornfield's experimental program has provided direct, quantitative observations of polymer dynamics from the local segmental motions that control their glass transition behavior to the overall relaxations of chain conformation and mesophase structures.

APS encourages the redistribution of the materials included in this newspaper provided that attribution to the source is noted and the materials are not truncated or changed.

Editor: Barrett H. Ripin

March 1996 (Volume 5, Number 3)

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APS Elementary Institute was a Blizzard of Activity
APS Council Elects 180 New Fellows
Inside the Beltway
Physicists to be Honored at 1996 March Meeting
Book Review
AIP Issues Study on PhD Physicists in National Laboratories
APS Views
We Must Protect U.S. Investment in Scientific Knowledge
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